The author's remarks

January 17th, 2018


The following studies are based on the author's research on Meroitic and Romano-Egyptian pottery, conducted for the submission his postgraduate dissertation in 2009 at the University of Southampton. His original dissertation was titled “An investigation of ceramic production in Meroitic Lower Nubia during the period of the Roman occupation in Qasr Ibrim” and it was submitted for the completion of his MA degree in Ceramic and Lithic Analysis for Archaeologists.

Although the author discusses ceramic materials and introduces information that were originally included in his 2009 dissertation, the following articles do not copy the dissertation's structure and many of the original arguments are now refined and supplemented with additional discussion. Furthermore, the presentation of the study has been modified to suit the needs of small online articles, divided thematically in order to stand on their own as separate entities.

To avoid misunderstandings, the author has decided not to upload his original dissertation on this website due to some specific copyright restrictions. The original 2009 MA dissertation included illustrations and photographs taken from other authors' books; therefore, they were the intellectual property of third parties and cannot be republished without their permission. In the following articles, such photographs and illustrations have either been replaced or removed. For the intellectual property rights of the archaeological material included in the original 2009 dissertation, which is also used in the following articles, please read the disclaimer below.


At the time of writing of his dissertation, the author received permission from the Department of Archaeology of the University of Southampton, to study ceramic material from the Qasr Ibrim excavation and include it in his thesis. The ceramic material was at that time part of the Department’s teaching collection. Furthermore, the author received permission to sample specific artefacts and produce thin sections for the needs of his project, which he then returned to the Department.

At the time of the production of his dissertation in 2009, there was no written agreement between the author and the Institution forbidding the publication of his work. Furthermore, there was no formal or informal discussion between the author and the Institution's representatives, stating that the author did not have full intellectual property rights over his own dissertation, including the illustration of any material discussed in its text. For the above reasons, any reference to and discussion of the above archaeological material, including the original illustrations, photographs and photo-micrographs, which were produced personally by the author in 2009, are treated as the author's own intellectual property and are utilised according to the author's own will.

The author clearly states that the publication of his work on this website does not consist of a commercial activity and does not aim towards economic profit. By contrast, the author wishes his work to be publicly available for free and to be shared openly among those interested in reading it. Unfortunately, despite the author's efforts in producing a short article out of his original dissertation, it has been over nine years that his work was never made publicly available for the purpose it was originally written for. The author states that this piece of work, which is the author's personal intellectual property, is now publicly available for free at the author's personal website.


The reader must bear in mind that several areas in this article are already out of date as these were first written over nine years ago. Some discussion has been added to highlight these areas, although the author could not catch up with the latest developments and bibliography in Meroitic, Romano-Egyptian and Nubian archaeology due to the different nature of his current work. Furthermore, the author's dissertation in 2009 did not consist of an original contribution to archaeological knowledge, as this was formally expected from doctoral candidates at that time. The level of work encountered in his original dissertation, which reflects on the arguments of the following articles, matches the aims and objectives of a standard Master's degree dissertation in Archaeology. Still, the author believes that his work is likely to contain useful information to several postgraduate and undergraduate students, particularly to those studying the archaeology of Egypt and Sudan. The content of the following articles can be used freely for the promotion of knowledge, but cannot be used for any form of profitable activity.

The author wishes to apologise for the quality of some illustrated material taken from his original dissertation. Back then, it was produced under time pressure, with limited technical resources and support. Such illustrated material, and particularly drawings and photographs of pottery and photo-micrographs of ceramic thin sections, were produced by the author himself at a time when his professional skills were still under development. Again, the author believes that this illustrated material demonstrates the variety of skills he acquired during his studies at Southampton, and deserves to be included in the following articles as it was originally produced.

What is to follow?

The following articles examine how pottery production patterns can be used to investigate connections between cultural groups that have been historically recorded as enemies. The two cultural groups examined are the Romano-Egyptians and the Meroites, who lived together in the same geographical region of Lower Nubia, between the first and the middle fourth centuries AD. A key point in the following studies will be the investigation of ceramic evidence from the Lower Nubian settlement of Qasr Ibrim.


For accessing and studying the Qasr Ibrim material back in 2009, and for their broader support during his project, the author is indebted to Dr. A. Gascoigne and Dr. D. Williams from the University of Southampton. He is also grateful to Dr. P. Rose from the University of Cambridge for her guidance, advice and useful information in relation to the excavations at Qasr Ibrim. Finally, the author would like to thank J. Phillips for her technical support and J. Cooper for her comments and suggestions, which were extremely useful when he started this study several years ago.